Digestive Diseases

I.      CONGENITAL AND INHERITED ANOMALIES

1.     Mouth

A.     Cleft Palate or Cleft Lip (Harelip) Complex

This is due to a disturbance of the processes that form the jaw and face during embryonic development. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    B.      Occlusal Anomalies

    a.      Brachygnathia (overshot, short lower jaw) is manifest when the mandible is shorter than the maxilla. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

b.      Prognathia (undershot, or monkey or sow mouth in horses) is found when the mandible is longer than the maxilla. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Tongue Anomalies

Ankyloglossia or microglossia refers to incomplete or abnormal development of the tongue. It is often referred to as “bird tongue” in dogs and may be a component of the fading puppy syndrome. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Tight-lip Syndrome of Chinese Shar-Peis

Some Shar-Peis have a small or absent lower anterior lip vestibule. The lower lip covers the lower teeth and folds over the lower incisor teeth toward the tongue. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      2.     Teeth 

A.     Abnormal Number

In most species, a reduction in the number of teeth (termed anodontia) is rare, although in dogs, molars and premolars may fail to develop or erupt. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Enamel Lesions

Hypoplasia or disruption in enamel formation can occur in both large and small animals. Common causes are pyrexia, trauma, malnutrition, toxicosis, and infections (e.g., distemper virus in dogs). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      3.     Cysts And Sinuses Of The Head And Neck

 

  1. A.     Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroglossal duct cyst is the result of postnatal persistence of the early embryonic thyroglossal duct. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Branchial (or lateral cervical) cyst

A branchial (or lateral cervical) cyst develops from branchial apparatus malformation, usually of the second branchial cleft. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Dentigerous cysts

Dentigerous cysts are of epithelial origin and arise from abnormal tooth development. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      4.     Esophagus

 

A.     Congenital megaesophagus

Congenital megaesophagus is thought to result from developmental anomalies in esophageal neuromuscular innervation. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Vascular ring entrapment anomalies

Vascular ring entrapment anomalies most commonly result from persistence of the right fourth aortic arch during embryonic development, which results in esophageal entrapment at the heart base by the right fourth aortic arch, left atrium, pulmonic artery, and the ligamentum arteriosum. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Cricopharyngeal achalasia

Cricopharyngeal achalasia is a failure, or asynchrony, of the cricopharyngeus muscle to relax during swallowing, thereby preventing the normal passage of a food bolus from the caudal pharynx to the cranial esophagus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Lower esophageal sphincter achalasia

Lower esophageal sphincter achalasia is now considered to be a component of a more generalized esophageal motor disturbance (ie, megaesophagus) and no longer a distinct entity. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Esophageal diverticula

Esophageal diverticula may involve the cervical esophagus just cranial to the thoracic inlet or be epiphrenic (just cranial to the diaphragm). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      5.     Hernias

 

    A.     Hernias involving the diaphragm

    a.      Peritoneopericardial, in which abdominal contents are found extending into the pericardial sac. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. b.      Pleuroperitoneal, in which abdominal contents are found within the pleural cavity. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

    c.      Hiatal, in which the abdominal esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and/or portions of the stomach protrude through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Hernias involving the abdominal wall

Umbilical hernias are secondary to failure of the normal closure of the umbilical ring and result in protrusion of abdominal contents into the overlying subcutis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      6.     Stomach

Besides hiatal hernia the most common abnormality involving the stomach with a suspect heritable etiology is pyloric stenosis. Pyloric stenosis or hypertrophy results from muscular thickening of the pyloric sphincter, which obstructs pyloric outflow. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      7.     Small and Large Intestine

 

  1. A.     Protein-losing enteropathy

Soft-coated Wheaten Terriers have a high incidence of concurrent protein-losing enteropathy and nephropathy. Both IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) and food allergies are considered to be a component of this syndrome. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Gluten-sensitive enteropathy

Irish Setters are reported to have a familial tendency for a gluten-sensitive enteropathy, with clinical signs beginning as early as 6 mo of age. The wheat sensitivity is both confirmed and treated through the use of gluten-free diets. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Immunoproliferative enteropathy

Basenjis are prone to an immunoproliferative enteropathy of unknown mode of inheritance. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Lymphangiectasia

Lymphangiectasia is a malformation of the intestinal lymphatic system that results in a protein-losing enteropathy that may be congenital or acquired. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI)

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency has a higher incidence in German Shepherds and is due to pancreatic acinar atrophy; it is an acquired disease (secondary to pancreatitis) in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. F.      Segmental aplasia (rectal agenesis) & Colonic and rectal duplications

Segmental aplasia is seen when the rectum terminates in a blind pouch before reaching the anus. Colonic and rectal duplications are rare, and affected animals generally show signs of large-bowel disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. G.     Rectourethral fistula & Rectovaginal fistula

Rectourethral fistula has been reported in English Bulldogs and is seen clinically as simultaneous urination from both the urogenital and anal orifices along with a history of chronic urinary tract infections. Rectovaginal fistula is a fistulous tract that connects the vagina and rectum and usually is seen in conjunction with imperforate anus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      8.     Liver

 

  1. A.     Portosystemic shunt (PSS)

The most common congenital liver anomaly is portosystemic shunt. PSS results in portal blood bypassing the liver and gaining direct access to the systemic vascular system. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Hepatoportal microvascular dysplasia

Hepatoportal microvascular dysplasia is an intrahepatic circulatory disorder that results in the shunting of portal blood to the systemic circulation. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Copper-associated hepatopathy

Copper-associated hepatopathy is a metabolic derangement of hepatic copper storage resulting in progressive hepatocellular copper accumulation and the subsequent development of chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Hepatic cysts

Additional hepatic developmental anomalies include hepatic cysts, which are generally asymptomatic and of clinical significance only in that they must be differentiated from hepatic abscesses. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

II.      DENTAL DISEASES

1.     Periodontal Disease

Bacterial infection of the tissue surrounding the teeth causes inflammation of the gingivae, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. Prevention or reduction of plaque deposition can be achieved with barrier sealants and plaque prevention gels. Mechanical control, in the form of toothbrushing and diets designed to remove tartar and calculus from teeth, can be used proactively to prevent periodontal disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      2.     Endodontic Disease

 

  1. A.     Pulpal Hyperemia

The pulp may become acutely inflamed due to trauma or extension of lesions adjacent to the pulp (eg, caries and resorption). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Pulpitis

Inflammation of the pulp with pressure necrosis and abscessation may be reversible or irreversible. In general, the abscess cavity is initially sterile unless the tooth has been opened to the oral environment by trauma, resorption, or caries. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Periapical Lesions

A periapical abscess is a cavitational lesion at the end of the root due to pulpal disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      3.     Gingival Fibroma and Epulides

This benign overgrowth of the epithelial and connective tissue of the gums usually originates near the gingival margin. Epulides are benign tumors of the gum that arise from the periodontium. They are the most common benign oral tumors in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      4.     Feline Odontoclastic Resorptive Lesions (“Neck” lesions, Cervical line erosions)

Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL) are the most frequently seen dental lesions in domestic cats. On examination, loss of dental tissue on the crown or at the neck of teeth is evident. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      5.     Feline Gingivitis/Stomatitis Syndrome

The oral cavity of the domestic cat may react intensely to disease and result in painful, severe inflammation of the oral cavity. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      6.     Developmental Abnormalities

 

  1. A.     Malocclusion

Proper growth and development of the oral cavity depends on a series of events that must occur in proper sequence or long-term complications will occur. Preventing major problems with early intervention is in the animal’s best interest. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Enamel Hypoplasia and Hypocalcification

During the development of enamel (both deciduous and permanent teeth), fevers and deposition of chemicals within the tooth may cause permanent damage. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      7.     Maxillofacial Trauma

Fractured teeth should be inspected for damage to the pulp. If fractures extend into the pulp, endodontic therapy is required, or extraction must be performed. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      8.     Dental Caries

Dental decay is uncommon in dogs, possibly because of differences in oral flora, diets largely free of readily fermentable carbohydrates, and the slightly alkaline pH of canine saliva. Dental caries rarely are seen in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

III.      PHARYNGEAL PARALYSIS

Pharyngeal paralysis may be the result of a central or peripheral nervous disorder, or of severe local disease that may cause collapse, obstruction, or malfunction of the pharynx. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

IV.      DISEASES OF THE RECTUM AND ANUS

      1.     Anal sac disease

Anal sac disease is the most common disease entity of the anal region in dogs. Small breeds are predisposed; large or giant breeds are rarely affected. In cats, the most common form of anal sac disease is impaction. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      2.     Perianal fistula

Perianal fistula is characterized by chronic, purulent, malodorous, ulcerating, sinus tracts in the perianal tissues. It is most common in German Shepherds and is also seen in Setters and Retrievers. Dogs >7 yr old are at higher risk. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      3.     Perineal hernia

Perineal hernia is a lateral protrusion of a peritoneally lined hernial sac between the levator ani and either the external anal sphincter muscle or the coccygeus muscle. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      4.     Rectal and Anorectal Strictures

Strictures are a narrowing of the lumen due to cicatricial tissue. Injury may result from foreign bodies or trauma (eg, bite wounds, accidents) or as a complication of inflammatory disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      5.     Rectal Neoplasms

Malignant rectal neoplasms are usually adenocarcinomas in dogs and lymphosarcomas in cats. Adenocarcinomas are slow growing and infiltrative. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      6.     Rectal Polyps

Rectal adenomatous polyps are an infrequent, usually benign disease. Signs include tenesmus, hematochezia, and diarrhea. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      7.     Rectal prolapse

In rectal prolapse, one or more layers of the rectum protrude through the anus due to persistent tenesmus associated with intestinal, anorectal, or urogenital disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      8.     Rectal Tears

A separation, rent, or tear in the rectal or anal mucosa is seen as a result of a laceration inflicted within the lumen. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

V.      CAMPYLOBACTERIOSIS

Gastrointestinal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter jejuni or C coli, is associated with diarrhea in various animal hosts, including dogs, cats, and humans. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

VI.      SALMONELLOSIS

Many dogs and cats are asymptomatic carriers of salmonellae. Clinical disease is uncommon, but when it is seen, it is often associated with hospitalization, another infection or debilitating condition in adults, or exposure to large numbers of the bacteria in puppies and kittens. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

VII.      TYZZER’S DISEASE

Tyzzer’s disease is an acute bacterial infection of a wide range of animals that is seen worldwide. The disease is rare in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

VIII.      AMEBIASIS

Amebiasis is an acute or chronic colitis, characterized by persistent diarrhea or dysentery. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

IX.      COCCIDIOSIS

Coccidiosis is a usually acute invasion and destruction of intestinal mucosa by protozoa of the genera Eimeria or Isospora. Sanitation is important, especially in catteries and kennels. Raw meat should not be fed. Insect control should be established. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

X.      GIARDIASIS (GIARDOSIS, LAMBLIASIS, LAMBLIOSIS)

Giardiasis is a chronic, intestinal protozoal infection that is seen worldwide in most domestic and wild mammals, many birds, and people. Infection is common in dogs and cats. The killed vaccines that are available for dogs and cats aid in disease prevention by decreasing or preventing cyst shedding. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

XI.      DISEASES OF THE MOUTH

      1.     Oral Inflammatory and Ulcerative disease

 

  1. A.     Ulceroproliferative Faucitis/Stomatitis (Plasma cell stomatitis, Lymphocytic-plasmacytic stomatitis)

Cats with ulceroproliferative faucitis/stomatitis (UPFS) present with progressively worsening gingivitis and stomatitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Chronic ulcerative stomatitis

Characteristics of chronic ulcerative stomatitis (also called chronic ulcerative paradental syndrome or CUPS) include severe gingival inflammation, multiple sites of gingival recession and dehiscence, and large areas of ulcerated labial mucosa adjacent to the surfaces of large teeth. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Lip fold dermatitis and Cheilitis

Lip fold dermatitis is a chronic moist dermatitis seen in breeds that have pendulous upper lips and lower lateral lip folds (eg, spaniels, English Bulldogs, Saint Bernards) that accumulate saliva. Direct extension of severe periodontal disease or stomatitis can produce cheilitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Mycotic stomatitis

Mycotic stomatitis, caused by overgrowth of Candida albicans , is an uncommon cause of stomatitis in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG) (Necrotizing ulcerative gingivostomatitis, Ulceromembranous stomatitis, Necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis, Vincent’s stomatitis, Trenchmouth)

This relatively uncommon disease of dogs is characterized by severe gingivitis, ulceration, and necrosis of the oral mucosa. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. F.      Glossitis

Glossitis, an acute or chronic inflammation of the tongue, may be due to infectious, physical, or chemical agents; metabolic; or other causes such as electrical burns and insect stings. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      2.     Soft Tissue Trauma

 

  1. A.     Cheek-biting

A proliferative, verrucous lesion along the bite-plane of the cheek may result from self-trauma when the tissue becomes entrapped between the teeth during chewing. It can also affect the sublingual tissues in dogs and cats. Surgical removal of the excess tissue prevents further trauma. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Mouth Burns 

Thermal, chemical, or electrical burns involving the mouth are not uncommon. The tongue, lips, buccal mucosa, and palate are frequently involved with electrical burns. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      3.     Viral Warts and Papillomas

Viral warts (verruca vulgaris) are benign growths caused by a virus. Papillomas (Papillomas) are benign exophytic proliferations of squamous epithelium. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      4.     Oral Tumors

 

  1. A.     Epulides

Epulides are firm masses involving the gingival tissue and are the most common benign oral tumors in dogs. Cats less commonly have benign oral tumors. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Malignant Oral Tumors

Tumors of the mouth and pharynx are common and likely to be malignant. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      5.     Salivary Disorders

 

  1. A.     Ptyalism

Ptyalism, or sialosis, describes hypersecretion of saliva that is characterized clinically by drooling. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Salivary mucocele

In a salivary mucocele (or sialocele), mucoid saliva accumulates in the subcutaneous tissue after damage to the salivary duct or gland. This is the most common salivary gland disorder of dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Salivary fistulas

Salivary fistulas, which are rare, may result from trauma to the mandibular, zygomatic, or sublingual salivary glands. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Salivary gland tumors

Salivary gland tumors are rare in dogs and cats, although cats are affected twice as frequently as dogs. Most are seen in dogs and cats >10 yr old. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Sialadenitis

Sialadenitis, or inflammation of the salivary gland, is rarely a clinical problem in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. F.      Xerostomia

Xerostomia, or aptyalism, is a decreased secretion of saliva, characterized by a dry mouth. It can cause significant discomfort and difficulty with eating. It is uncommon in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

XII.      DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS

1.     Cricopharyngeal Achalasia

Cricopharyngeal achalasia is characterized by inadequate relaxation of the cricopharyngeal muscle, which leads to a relative inability to swallow food or liquids. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      2.     Dilatation of the Esophagus (Megaesophagus)

Megaesophagus may be due to a congenital defect or may be an adult-onset, acquired disorder. Adult-onset megaesophagus may be primary (idiopathic) or secondary to systemic disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      3.     Esophageal Strictures (Esophageal stenosis) 

Esophageal stricture is a pathologic narrowing of the lumen that may develop after trauma, esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux, or tumor invasion. Esophageal tumors are rare. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      4.     Esophagitis 

Inflammation of the esophagus is usually caused by foreign bodies, gastroesophageal reflux, and occasionally certain drugs (eg, doxycycline). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      5.     Esophageal Foreign Bodies 

Esophageal foreign bodies are more common in dogs than cats. Bones are the most common foreign body, but needles, fishhooks, wood, and rawhide pieces may also become lodged in the esophagus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      6.     Esophageal Diverticula 

Diverticula are pouch-like dilatations of the esophageal wall and may be congenital or acquired. They are rare in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      7.     Bronchoesophageal Fistula 

Bronchoesophageal fistulas are rarely seen in dogs and cats. They most commonly develop secondary to foreign body penetration of the esophagus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

XIII.      DISEASES OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES

      1.     Canine Parvovirus 

Initially, 2 common clinical forms of the disease were recognized—myocarditis and gastroenteritis. Vaccination is critical in the control of the disease. Vaccination of pups should begin at 5-8 wk of age, preferably with a high antigen-density vaccine. The last vaccination should be given at 16-20 wk of age, and annual vaccination thereafter is recommended. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      2.     Colitis 

The colon helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance and absorb nutrients; it also temporarily stores feces and provides an environment for microorganisms. Pathology of the colon impairs these functions, and diarrhea ensues. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      3.     Constipation and Obstipation 

Constipation is a common clinical problem in small animals. In most instances, the problem is easily rectified; however, in more debilitated animals, accompanying clinical signs can be severe. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      4.     Feline Enteric Coronavirus 

Feline enteric coronavirus is highly contagious among cats in close contact. In catteries, the virus may be a cause of inapparent to mildly severe enteritis in kittens 6-12 wk old. Vaccination with the temperature-sensitive intranasal vaccine for FIP may protect against challenge with virulent enteric coronavirus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      5.     Gastric Dilatation-volvulus (blot)

Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening emergency. Successful management depends on prompt diagnosis and appropriate medical and surgical treatment. GDV tends to primarily affect large, deep-chested dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      6.     Gastritis 

 

  1. A.     Acute gastritis

Acute gastritis is usually caused by dietary indiscretion leading to damage of the gastric mucosa. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Chronic superficial gastritis

Chronic superficial gastritis is characterized histologically by infiltration of the superficial mucosa and lamina propria with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and fibrosis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Chronic atrophic gastritis

Chronic atrophic gastritis is characterized by a thin mucosa, a variable inflammatory cell infiltrate, and a reduction in the size and depth of gastric glands. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Chronic hypertrophic gastritis

Chronic hypertrophic gastritis is identified by a diffuse or focal thickening of the gastric mucosa and large rugal folds that result from hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mucosal glands. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Eosinophilic gastritis

Eosinophilic gastritis is uncommon. It is characterized by diffuse eosinophilic infiltration and granulation of the gastric wall. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

7.     Gastrointestinal Neoplasia 

Neoplasia of the GI system is uncommon and represents <1% of all cancers in small animals. GI cancer most commonly develops in the rectum and colon of dogs and in the small intestine of cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

8.     Gastrointestinal Obstruction 

 

  • A.     Gastric outflow obstruction
  • Gastric outflow obstruction can result from neoplasia, foreign bodies, polyps, ulcers, and gastric mucosal hypertrophy. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Intestinal obstruction
  • Intestinal obstruction may be partial or complete and may be caused by foreign bodies, intussusception, gastric dilatation-volvulus, incarceration, and neoplasia. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    9.     Gastrointestinal Ulcers

    GI ulcers result from a breakdown of the normal gastric mucosal barrier and are aggravated by an increase in hydrochloric acid or pepsin production. For more information click here or call your veterinarian. 

    10. Helicobacter Infection

    Helicobacter pylori has been associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric adenocarcinoma in people. Although the prevalence of gastric Helicobacter spp in dogs and cats is high, H pylori has not been found in dogs and is rarely identified in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    11. Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis

    Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) is characterized by an acute onset of bloody diarrhea in formerly healthy dogs. Young, toy, and miniature breeds of dogs appear predisposed. Mortality is high in untreated dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) constitutes a group of GI diseases characterized by persistent clinical signs and by histologic evidence of inflammatory cell infiltrate of unknown etiology. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    13. Malabsorption Syndromes 

    Malabsorption implies defective absorption of a dietary constituent resulting from interference with its digestion or absorption. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    XIV.      THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS

    1.     Pancreatitis

    Pancreatitis is the most common exocrine pancreatic disease in both dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • ·         Mild Chronic Pancreatitis 
  • Many dogs—and particularly cats—have mild forms of chronic pancreatitis. Cats with mild chronic pancreatitis should be evaluated for concurrent chronic small-intestinal disease.

    2.     Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency 

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a syndrome caused by insufficient synthesis and secretion of digestive enzymes by the exocrine portion of the pancreas. It is much more common in dogs than cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Pancreatic Neoplasms 

    Neoplasias of the exocrine pancreas can be primary or secondary and can be classified as benign or malignant. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Pancreatic Abscesses 

    A pancreatic abscess is a collection of pus, usually in proximity to the pancreas, containing little or no pancreatic necrosis. Pancreatic abscesses are considered a complication of pancreatitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Pancreatic Pseudocyst 

    A pancreatic pseudocyst is a collection of sterile pancreatic fluid enclosed by a wall of fibrous or granulation tissue; these structures are also considered a complication of pancreatitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    XV.      GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES

    1.     Spirocerca lupi 

    Adult Spirocerca lupi are bright red worms, generally located within nodules in the esophageal, gastric, or aortic walls. In endemic areas, dogs should be prevented from eating dung beetles, frogs, mice, lizards, etc, and not fed raw chicken scraps. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Physaloptera spp (Stomach worm) 

    Several species of these stomach nematodes of dogs and cats are seen throughout the world. They are usually firmly attached to the gastric or duodenal mucosa. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Ollulanus sp

    Ollulanus tricuspis is a small worm that infects several animal species and occasionally induces a mild erosive or catarrhal gastritis in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Strongyloides sp 

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a small, slender nematode that when fully mature is located at the base of the villi in the anterior half of the small intestine of dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Roundworms 

    The large roundworms (ascaridoid nematodes) of dogs and cats are common, especially in puppies and kittens. The most important is T canis , not only because its larvae may migrate in people, but also because fatal infections may be seen in young pups. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    6.     Hookworms 

    An acute normocytic, normochromic anemia followed by hypochromic, microcytic anemia in young puppies is the characteristic, and often fatal, clinical manifestation of A caninum infection. The infective larvae of canine hookworms, particularly those of A braziliense, may penetrate and wander under the skin of people. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    7.     Whipworms (Trichuriasis)

    Adult Trichuris vulpis commonly inhabit the cecum of dogs where they are firmly attached to the wall, with their anterior end embedded in the mucosa. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    8.     Acanthocephalans

     

  • A.     Oncicola sp
  • Oncicola canis are rarely found in the small intestine of dogs and cats in the western hemisphere. Their thorny heads are embedded in the mucosa. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Macracanthorhynchus sp 
  • Macracanthorhynchus ingens, naturally a parasite of raccoons, is occasionally found in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    9.     Tapeworms (Cestodes)

    Most urban dogs and cats eat prepared foods and have restricted access to natural prey. Such animals may acquire Dipylidium caninum (the double-pored dog tapeworm) from fleas. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    10. Flukes

     

  • A.     Intestinal Flukes 
  •  

  • a.      Nanophyetus (Troglotrema) salmincola, the “salmon poisoning” fluke, is a small (0.5 × 0.3 mm), oval fluke found in the small intestine of dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.
  •  

  • b.      Alaria alata, A canis, and other Alaria spp are small (0.5-1.5 mm) flukes usually found in the small intestine of dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.
  •  

  • c.      Heterobilharzia americana is found in the mesenteric veins of dogs and wild animals in southeastern USA. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.
  •  

  • B.      Hepatic Flukes 
  • Flukes in the bile ducts and gallbladder cause mild to severe fibrosis. Many species of distome trematodes have been reported from the liver of dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    XVI.      HEPATIC DISEASE

    1.     Portosystemic shunts

    The most common circulatory anomaly of the liver in both dogs and cats is the portosystemic shunt (PSS). A PSS is a connection between the portal vessels and systemic circulation that diverts blood flow, in varying degrees, from the liver. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • ·         Other Vascular Anomalies 

    Hepatic arteriovenous fistulas, hepatic venous outflow obstruction, and hepatoportal microvascular dysplasia are other vascular anomalies. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Hepatotoxins 

    Many drugs have been associated with hepatic dysfunction. These include anticonvulsants, glucocorticoids, thiacetarsamide, mebendazole, oxibendazole-diethylcarbamazine, NSAID and etc. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Infectious Diseases of the Liver

     

  • A.     Viral Diseases 
  • Viral diseases associated with liver dysfunction include infectious canine hepatitis, feline infectious peritonitis, canine acidophil hepatitis, and canine herpesvirus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Leptospirosis 
  • Leptospira interrogans, especially serotype icterohemorrhagiae and, to a lesser extent, chronic infections with grippotyphosa are associated with liver disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • C.     Tyzzer’s Disease 
  • Tyzzer’s disease is a rare but fatal condition caused by Bacillus piliformis. Clinical signs are acute in onset and rapidly progress to death within 24-48 hr. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • D.     Extrahepatic Bacterial Infections 
  • Icterus associated with overwhelming extrahepatic bacterial infections is thought to be due to structural and functional changes in the liver induced by endotoxins. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • E.      Mycotic Infections 
  • The most common mycotic infections associated with liver dysfunction are coccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis. Clinical signs include ascites, jaundice, and hepatomegaly, in addition to signs associated with other systems involved. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • F.      Toxoplasmosis 
  • Toxoplasmosis can cause acute hepatic failure due to hepatic necrosis. Toxoplasma gondii is more commonly seen in cats positive for feline immunodeficiency virus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Feline Idiopathic Hepatic Lipidosis 

    Feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis is the most common cause of feline hepatopathy. The etiology is undetermined but is associated with a period of anorexia (few days to several weeks), especially in obese cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Cholangitis and Cholangiohepatitis (Inflammatory liver disease)

     

  • A.     Acute Cholangiohepatitis 
  • Acute cholangiohepatitis is often associated with bacterial, fungal, or protozoal infections, or less frequently, liver fluke infection. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Chronic Cholangiohepatitis 
  • Chronic cholangiohepatitis may be a chronic form of acute cholangiohepatitis: an immune-mediated disease, or secondary to infectious agents including feline infectious peritonitis, feline leukemia, toxoplasmosis, or liver fluke infections. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • C.     Biliary Cirrhosis 
  • Biliary cirrhosis refers to portal fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia that develop after longterm inflammation; it is thought to be the sequela of chronic cholangiohepatitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • D.     Lymphocytic Portal Hepatitis 
  • Lymphocytic portal hepatitis is an inflammatory disease of the liver that does not appear to be related to cholangiohepatitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • E.      Canine Cholangiohepatitis 
  • Cholangiohepatitis in dogs is rare and is associated with ascending biliary tract infections (Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni), choleliths, coccidiosis, and surgery of the biliary tract. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    6.     Canine Chronic Hepatitis

     

  • A.     Chronic Hepatitis of Bedlington Terriers 
  • Chronic hepatitis of Bedlington Terriers is a result of chronic progressive copper accumulation within the hepatocytes due to an abnormal binding protein. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Chronic Hepatitis of West Highland White Terriers 
  • West Highland White Terriers also have a copper-associated chronic hepatitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • C.     Idiopathic Chronic Hepatitis 
  • Idiopathic chronic hepatitis is defined as chronic periportal hepatitis with no identifiable cause. Most affected animals are 5-6 yr old. Any breed can be affected, with males and females equally affected. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • D.     Chronic Hepatitis of Doberman Pinschers 
  • Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of Doberman Pinschers is an idiopathic disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • E.      Chronic Hepatitis of Skye Terriers and Cocker Spaniels 
  • Chronic hepatitis in Skye Terriers and Cocker Spaniels is associated with increased hepatic copper concentrations. Young male Cocker Spaniels (American and English) appear to be most affected. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • F.      Lobular Dissecting Hepatitis 
  • Lobular dissecting hepatitis is an idiopathic disease reported primarily in young to middle-aged Standard Poodles. Ascites is the most common clinical sign. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    7.     Metabolic Diseases Affecting the Liver

     

  • A.     Endocrine Diseases 
  • Diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism, and hyperthyroidism can cause changes in the liver. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Hepatocutaneous Syndrome (Superficial necrolytic dermatitis, Metabolic epidermal necrosis, Necrolytic migratory erythema)
  • Hepatocutaneous syndrome is rare, chronic, progressive, and usually fatal. Although usually associated with a hepatopathy, this syndrome can also be seen in animals with pancreatic or neuroendocrine tumors. Diabetes mellitus is a common concurrent disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    ysts and Nodular Hyperplasia 

  • A.     Hepatic cysts (cytoadenomas)
  • Hepatic cysts can be acquired (usually single nodules) or congenital (usually multiple). They are found in both dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Nodular hyperplasia
  • Nodular hyperplasia is a benign, age-related change in dogs that does not usually cause clinical disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    9.     Hepatic Neoplasia 

    Primary hepatic neoplasms are less common than metastatic neoplasms of the liver and are either carcinomas, sarcomas, or of hemolymphatic origin. Metastatic neoplasia of the liver can originate from several organs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    10. Miscellaneous Liver Diseases

     

  • A.     Glycogen Storage Disease 
  • In general, glycogen storage diseases are caused by a deficiency of certain enzymes and result in failure of glycogen to be released from the cell. Therefore, glycogen accumulates within the liver and other organs and is unavailable for conversion to glucose. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Hepatic Amyloidosis 
  • Amyloidosis is a familial disease of Abyssinian, Siamese, and oriental cats and Chinese Shar-Peis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • C.     Idiopathic Hepatic Fibrosis 
  • Hepatic fibrosis in young dogs that is not associated with any underlying inflammatory conditions is referred to as idiopathic hepatic fibrosis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    11. Diseases of the Gallbladder and Extrabiliary System

     

  • A.     Obstructive Diseases of the Extrahepatic Biliary System 
  • Obstructive diseases of the extrahepatic biliary system are most often associated with pancreatic disease. Pancreatic edema, inflammation, or fibrosis due to pancreatitis can cause compression of the common bile duct. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Cholecystitis
  • Cholecystitis is usually caused by bacterial infections that either are intestinal in origin and ascend up the common bile duct or are from hematogenous spread. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • C.     Choleliths 
  • Choleliths rarely cause disease. When it does occur, disease is usually seen in older, female, small-breed dogs. In cats, choleliths are generally associated with cholangitis and cholangiohepatitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • D.     Extrahepatic Infection and Sepsis
  • Extrahepatic infection and sepsis can cause cholestasis and hyperbilirubinemia. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • E.      Parasitic Infection 
  • The liver fluke Platynosomum concinnum is an uncommon cause of biliary tract disease in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • F.      Rupture of the Gallbladder 
  • Rupture of the gallbladder is most often seen with cholelithiasis, necrotizing cholecystitis, or blunt trauma. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    XVII.      VOMITING

    Vomiting is the forceful ejection of the contents of the stomach and proximal small intestine. It is a vigorously active motion signaled by hypersalivation, retching, and forceful contractions of the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm. Vomiting must be differentiated from regurgitation, which is a passive motion facilitated by gravity and body position of the animal. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.