Eye and Ear Diseases

EYE

Ophthalmology

1.     Eyelids

    1. A.     Conformational Abnormalities 

 

      1. a.      Entropion

Entropion is an inversion of all or part of the lid margins that may involve one or both eyelids and the canthi. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. b.      Ectropion

Ectropion is a slack, everted lid margin, usually with a large palpebral fissure. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. c.      Lagophthalmos

Lagophthalmos is an inability to fully close the lids and protect the cornea from drying and trauma. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. d.      Abnormalities of the cilia

Abnormalities of the cilia include extra (distichia) or misdirected eyelashes on the lid margin. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Inflammation 

Blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids) can result from extension of a generalized dermatitis, conjunctivitis or local glandular infections, or irritants such as plant oils or solar exposure. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Nasolacrimal and Lacrimal Apparatus 

 

    1. A.     Cherry eye

Hypertrophy and prolapse of the gland of the nictitating membrane (cherry eye) is common in young dogs and certain breeds (eg, American Cocker Spaniel and English Bulldog). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Dacryocystitis

Dacryocystitis (inflammation of the lacrimal sac) usually is caused by obstruction of the nasolacrimal sac and proximal nasolacrimal duct by inflammatory debris, foreign bodies, or masses pressing on the duct. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. C.     Imperforate lacrimal puncta

Imperforate lacrimal puncta are an infrequent cause of epiphora in young dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. D.     Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

KCS is due to an aqueous tear deficiency and usually results in persistent, mucopurulent conjunctivitis and corneal ulceration and scarring. KCS occurs both in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Conjunctiva 

 

    1. A.     Subconjunctival hemorrhage

Subconjunctival hemorrhage may arise from trauma or blood dyscrasias and certain infectious diseases. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Chemosis

Chemosis, or conjunctival edema, occurs to some degree with all cases of conjunctivitis, but the most dramatic examples are seen with trauma, hypoproteinemia, allergic reactions, and insect bites. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. C.     Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis is common in all domestic species. The etiologic agent(s) vary from infectious to environmental irritants. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Cornea 

 

A.     Superficial keratitis

Superficial keratitis is common in all species and is characterized by corneal vascularization and opacification, which may be due to edema, cellular infiltrates, pigmentation, or fibroplasia. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Interstitial keratitis

Interstitial keratitis is a deep involvement of the corneal stroma that is presented with all chronic and many acute cases of anterior uveitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. C.     Ulcerative keratitis

Ulcerative keratitis may be superficial, deep, deep with descemetocele, or perforating. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. D.     Corneal sequestration and keratitis

Corneal sequestration and keratitis appear to be unique to the cat. There is a painful, central to paracentral, brown to black opacity composed of necrotic stroma, vascularization, and surrounding inflammation. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. E.      Corneal degeneration and dystrophies

Corneal degeneration and dystrophies occur in dogs and cats. Corneal degenerations are often unilateral and usually secondary to ocular or systemic diseases. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Anterior Uvea

 

    1. A.     Persistent pupillary membranes

Persistent pupillary membranes are remnants of the normal prenatal vascular network that fills the pupillary region. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Atrophy of the iris

Atrophy of the iris is common in older dogs and may involve the pupillary margin or the stroma. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. C.     Iridic cysts

Iridic cysts are seen in dogs and cats. In dogs, they usually are free-floating, pigmented spheres in the aqueous humor within the pupil and anterior and posterior chambers. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. D.     Anterior uveitis

Anterior uveitis or iridocyclitis, when acute, is manifest by miosis, increased protein and cells in the anterior chamber. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    6.     Glaucoma 

The glaucomas represent a group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure with resultant retinal and optic disk destruction. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    7.     Lens

 

    1. A.     Cataracts

Cataracts are opacity of the lens or its capsule and should be differentiated from the minor lens imperfections in young dogs and the normal increase in nuclear density (nuclear sclerosis) that occurs in older animals. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Lens displacement

Lens displacement (subluxation, anterior or posterior luxation) occurs in all species but is common as a primary inherited defect in several terrier breeds. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    8.     Ocular fundus

 

    A.     Inherited Retinopathies 

  1. a.      Collie eye anomaly

Collie eye anomaly is a congenital, recessively inherited, ocular defect with variable expression in rough- and smooth-coated Collies. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. b.      Retinal dysplasia

Retinal dysplasia is a congenital, focal, geographic, or generalized maldevelopment of the retina that may arise from trauma, genetic defect, or intrauterine damage, such as viral infections. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. c.      Progressive retinal atrophy

PRA is a group of degenerative retinopathies consisting of inherited photoreceptor dysplasia and degenerations that have a similar clinical appearance. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. d.      Retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy

Retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (central progressive retinal atrophy) occurs in Labrador Retrievers, smooth and rough Collies, Border Collies, Shetland Sheepdogs, and Briards. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Chorioretinitis 

Chorioretinitis frequently is a manifestation of systemic infectious disease; it is important as both a convenient diagnostic clue and a prognosticator of visual function. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Retinal Detachments 

Retinal detachments occur in most species. In dogs, retinal detachment is associated with congenital retinal disorders (retinal dysplasia and Collie eye anomaly), chorioretinitis, trauma, intraocular surgery, and posterior segment neoplasia. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    9.     Optic Nerve 

 

  1. A.     Optic nerve hypoplasia

Optic nerve hypoplasia may be inherited in Miniature Poodles; in kittens and calves, it may result from in utero infections with panleukopenia and bovine viral diarrhea, respectively. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Papilledema

Papilledema is infrequent in animals and often associated with orbital masses. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Optic atrophy

Optic atrophy may occur after glaucoma, trauma, advanced retinal degeneration, prolonged ocular hypotension, or inflammation. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    10. Orbit 

The signs of orbital cellulitis are acute pain on opening the mouth, eyelid swelling, unilateral prolapse of the nictitating membrane, forward displacement of the globe, and conjunctivitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    11. Prolapse of the Eye 

Acute prolapse or proptosis of the eye occurs as a result of trauma. It is common in dogs and infrequent in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    12. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Systemic Diseases 

Ophthalmic manifestations of systemic diseases are not uncommon with inherited, infectious, degenerative, and neoplastic disorders in animals. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    II.      Chlamydial conjunctivitis

Different strains Chlamydiacause significant eye infection in cats and guinea pigs. These infections are occasionally transmitted to humans. The disease in cats is also known as feline pneumonitis, which is largely a misnomer because chlamydiae rarely cause pneumonia in cats. Vaccines are available for chlamydiosis in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    III.      Eyeworm disease (Thelaziasis)

Thelazia californiensis and T callipaeda are found in dogs, cats, and other animals, including humans, in the western USA and Asia, respectively. They are whitish, 7-19 mm long, and move in a rapid serpentine motion across the eye.  For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    IV.      Neoplasia of the eye and associated structures

  1. 1.     Dogs

 

  1. A.     Eyelid neoplasms are the most frequent group of ophthalmic neoplasms in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. B.      Orbital neoplasms in dogs produce exophthalmia, conjunctival and eyelid swelling, strabismus, and exposure keratitis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

<EAR>

    1.     Deafness

 

  1. A.     Acquired deafness may result from occlusion of the external ear canal as occurs in chronic otitis externa, or it may be secondary to destruction of the middle or inner ear. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. B.      Congenital deafness can be inherited or result from damage (toxic or viral) to the developing fetus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

    2.     Diseases of the pinna

 

  1. A.     Insects and parasites commonly cause pinnal dermatitis either through direct damage from the bite of the parasite or as a result of hypersensitivity. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. B.      Fly strike is a worldwide problem caused by the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and typically affects dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. C.     Equine aural plaques (papillary acanthoma, ear papillomas) are caused by a papillomavirus. Black flies (Simulium spp ) are likely the mechanical vector. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. D.     An allergic reaction to mosquito bites can cause an ulcerative and crusted dermatitis of the pinnae, nose, and rarely the footpads and eyelids of cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. E.      Sarcoptiform mite infestation (Sarcoptes scabiei, Notoedres cati) is common in dogs and cats throughout the world. Pruritus is severe. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. F.      Several ear margin dermatoses characterized by alopecia have been described in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. G.     Pinnal alopecia has been reported in Dachshunds, Chihuahuas, Italian Greyhounds, and Whippets and is thought to have a hereditary predisposition. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. H.     Ear margin seborrhea or ear margin dermatosis is common in Dachshunds, although other breeds with pendulous pinnae may be affected. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. I.       Acquired folded ear tips in cats are most often associated with longterm glucocorticoid therapy (eg, daily eye or otic preparations). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. J.       Feline solar dermatitis or actinic dermatitis is seen most commonly in white cats or cats with white pinnae that have been chronically exposed to sun. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. K.      Auricular hematomas are small to large fluid-filled swellings that develop on the concave surface of the pinnae in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. L.      Proliferative vascular necrosis of the pinnae is rare in dogs. There are no known breed, sex, or age predilections and the etiology is also unknown. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. M.    Auricular chondritis has been reported rarely in cats and in 1 dog. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. N.     Frostbite may occur in animals poorly adapted to cold climates and is more likely in wet or windy conditions. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. O.     Canine juvenile cellulitis is an uncommon disorder of puppies and is characterized by granulomatous, sterile pustules of the face, pinnae, and submandibular lymph nodes. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

3.     Otitis externa

Otitis externa is an acute or chronic inflammation of the epithelium of the external ear canal. Owners should be shown how to properly clean the ears. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Otitis media and interna

Otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear structures, is usually due to extension of infection from the external ear canal or to penetration of the tympanic membrane by a foreign object. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Tumors of the ear canal

 

  1. A.     Ceruminous Gland Tumors (Ceruminous gland adenoma, Adenocarcinoma)

Benign or malignant neoplasms that develop from the modified apocrine or cerumen glands in the external ear canal are most common in cats but also occur in dogs, usually in middle-aged or older animals. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Feline Nasopharyngeal Polyps 

Nasopharyngeal polyps are uncommon, benign, smooth, pink-red, fleshy, pedunculated, inflammatory growths of fibrous connective tissue that are found in the external ear canals of young cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Corneal and limbal neoplasms are uncommon in dogs and can be confused with nodular fasciitis and proliferative keratoconjunctivitis in Collies. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. D.     Malignant melanomas are the most common uveal neoplasm, are usually pigmented, and most frequently involve the iris and ciliary body. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

2.     Cats

Ophthalmic neoplasms are less frequent in cats than in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

<EAR>>

    1.     Deafness

 

  1. A.     Acquired deafness may result from occlusion of the external ear canal as occurs in chronic otitis externa, or it may be secondary to destruction of the middle or inner ear. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. B.      Congenital deafness can be inherited or result from damage (toxic or viral) to the developing fetus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

    2.     Diseases of the pinna

 

  1. A.     Insects and parasites commonly cause pinnal dermatitis either through direct damage from the bite of the parasite or as a result of hypersensitivity. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. B.      Fly strike is a worldwide problem caused by the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and typically affects dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. C.     Equine aural plaques (papillary acanthoma, ear papillomas) are caused by a papillomavirus. Black flies (Simulium spp ) are likely the mechanical vector. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. D.     An allergic reaction to mosquito bites can cause an ulcerative and crusted dermatitis of the pinnae, nose, and rarely the footpads and eyelids of cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. E.      Sarcoptiform mite infestation (Sarcoptes scabiei, Notoedres cati) is common in dogs and cats throughout the world. Pruritus is severe. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. F.      Several ear margin dermatoses characterized by alopecia have been described in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. G.     Pinnal alopecia has been reported in Dachshunds, Chihuahuas, Italian Greyhounds, and Whippets and is thought to have a hereditary predisposition. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. H.     Ear margin seborrhea or ear margin dermatosis is common in Dachshunds, although other breeds with pendulous pinnae may be affected. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. I.       Acquired folded ear tips in cats are most often associated with longterm glucocorticoid therapy (eg, daily eye or otic preparations). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. J.       Feline solar dermatitis or actinic dermatitis is seen most commonly in white cats or cats with white pinnae that have been chronically exposed to sun. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. K.      Auricular hematomas are small to large fluid-filled swellings that develop on the concave surface of the pinnae in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. L.      Proliferative vascular necrosis of the pinnae is rare in dogs. There are no known breed, sex, or age predilections and the etiology is also unknown. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. M.    Auricular chondritis has been reported rarely in cats and in 1 dog. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. N.     Frostbite may occur in animals poorly adapted to cold climates and is more likely in wet or windy conditions. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

  1. O.     Canine juvenile cellulitis is an uncommon disorder of puppies and is characterized by granulomatous, sterile pustules of the face, pinnae, and submandibular lymph nodes. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

3.     Otitis externa

Otitis externa is an acute or chronic inflammation of the epithelium of the external ear canal. Owners should be shown how to properly clean the ears. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Otitis media and interna

Otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear structures, is usually due to extension of infection from the external ear canal or to penetration of the tympanic membrane by a foreign object. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Tumors of the ear canal

 

  1. A.     Ceruminous Gland Tumors (Ceruminous gland adenoma, Adenocarcinoma)

Benign or malignant neoplasms that develop from the modified apocrine or cerumen glands in the external ear canal are most common in cats but also occur in dogs, usually in middle-aged or older animals. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Feline Nasopharyngeal Polyps 

Nasopharyngeal polyps are uncommon, benign, smooth, pink-red, fleshy, pedunculated, inflammatory growths of fibrous connective tissue that are found in the external ear canals of young cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.