Immuno Pathologic Diseases

I.       Diseases Involving Anaphylactic Reactions

      1.     Systemic Anaphylaxis (Generalized anaphylactic reactions) 

      1. A.     Anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactic shock occurs in sensitized animals after parenteral injection of vaccines or drugs, ingestion of foods, or insect bites.¡¡For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. B.      Hives

Urticarial reactions (hives or angioedematous plaques) of the skin and subcutaneous tissue and acute edema of the lips, conjunctiva, and skin of the face (facial-conjunctival angioedema) are less severe manifestations of a systemic allergic reaction. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. 2.       Localized Anaphylactic Reactions 

  1. A.     Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is manifest by serous nasal discharge and sneezing. It is less common in other animals than in people. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Chronic allergic bronchitis

Chronic allergic bronchitis has been best characterized in dogs. A dry, harsh, hacking cough is a characteristic clinical sign. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Allergic bronchiolitis

Allergic bronchiolitis is most common in cats. It is manifest by a low-grade cough, wheezing, some dyspnea. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia

Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia (PIE syndrome) occurs most frequently in dogs but has been recognized in all species. It is associated with diffuse inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Allergic asthma

Allergic asthma is less common in other animals than in humans. Among animals, it is most frequent in cats, in which the signs are similar to those in humans. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. F.      Intestinal allergies

Intestinal allergies (food allergies) are principally seen in dogs and cats, particularly kittens. Allergic gastritis is manifest by vomiting, which occurs 1 to >12 times weekly, within 1-2 hr of eating. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. G.     Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is a pruritic, chronic skin disorder that occurs in many species but has been studied mostly in dogs. In cats, food allergens probably are a more common cause of skin lesions than are inhaled allergens. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. II.       Diseases Involving Cytotoxic Antibodies

    1.     Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia 

      1. A.     Peracute AIHA

Peracute AIHA is seen mainly in middle-aged, larger breeds of dogs. Affected dogs are acutely depressed and within 24-48 hr. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. B.      Acute AIHA

Acute AIHA is the most common form of the disease, with a breed predilection in Cocker Spaniels. Initial signs are pallor, and fatigue. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. C.     Chronic AIHA

Chronic AIHA differs from the acute form in that the PCV falls to a constant level and remains there for weeks or months. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. D.     Pure red cell aplasia

Pure red cell aplasia is a variant of the above disorders and is most common in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. E.      Autoimmune thrombocytopenia

Autoimmune thrombocytopenia is common, especially in dogs. It occurs more often in females than males. The most frequent clinical signs are hemorrhages of the skin and mucous membranes. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. F.      Cold agglutinin (hemolytic) disease

Cold agglutinin (hemolytic) disease is an AIHA that has been recognized most often in dogs. It is often idiopathic but can be secondary to a chronic infection, other autoimmune diseases, or a neoplastic process. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Autoimmune Skin Disorders

    1. A.     Pemphigus foliaceus

Pemphigus foliaceus is more common in dogs than in cats but is still an uncommon disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Pemphigus vulgaris

Pemphigus vulgaris is rare than pemphigus foliaceus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. C.     Bullous pemphigoid

Bullous pemphigoid has been recognized in dogs, most often in Collies and Doberman Pinschers. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Myasthenia Gravis 

The acquired form of myasthenia gravis occurs in dogs and rarely in cats. Extreme generalized muscle weakness, accentuated by mild exercise, is common. For more information click here or call your veterinarian

  1. III.       Diseases Involving Immune Complexes (Type III reactions)

      1.     Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis is caused by deposition of antigen-antibody complexes in the subendothelial or subepithelial surface of the glomerular basement membrane. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      2.     Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is caused by deposition of immune complexes in the alveoli; it is most common in large animals that are exposed to antigenic dusts. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      3.     Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) occurs in dogs and rare in cats. It has 2 immunologic features: immune complex disease and a heightened antibody responsiveness with a tendency to produce autoantibodies. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      4.     Vasculitis

Vasculitis mediated by immune complexes occurs in animals, especially dogs. Lesions are most prevalent in the dermis of the distal limbs and mucous membranes of the mouth, particularly the palate and tongue. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      5.     Anterior uveitis

Anterior uveitis often involves immune-complex-mediated reactions; it frequently occurs in the recovery stage of infectious canine hepatitis due to the reaction of serum antibodies with uveal endothelial cells that contain canine adenovirus 1. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      6.     Canine rheumatoid arthritis

Canine rheumatoid arthritis manifests initially as a shifting lameness with soft-tissue swelling around involved joints. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      7.     Plasmacytic-lymphocytic synovitis

Plasmacytic-lymphocytic synovitis, possibly a variant of rheumatoid arthritis, occurs in medium and large breeds of dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      8.     Idiopathic polyarthritis

Idiopathic polyarthritis is most common in large dogs, particularly German Shepherds, Doberman Pinschers, retrievers, spaniels, and pointers. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      9.     Immune-mediated meningitis

Immune-mediated meningitis is believed to occur in dogs. The condition also has been called periarteritis nodosa, although its relationship to the human syndrome is uncertain. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. IV.       Diseases Involving Cell-mediated Immunity (Type IV reactions) 

      1.     Granulomatous reactions

Granulomatous reactions to microorganisms such as mycobacteria, Coccidioides, Blastomyces, and Histoplasma spp, and possibly feline infectious peritonitis virus, may be due to chronic cell-mediated immune reactions. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      2.     Old-dog encephalitis

Old-dog encephalitis may result from cell-mediated immune mechanisms directed against cells persistently infected with canine distemper virus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      3.     Contact hypersensitivity

Contact hypersensitivity results from chemicals reacting with dermal proteins, which modify self-proteins. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      4.     Autoimmune thyroiditis

Autoimmune thyroiditis has been recognized in dogs and is characterized by destruction of the thyroid gland by an autoimmune process. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      5.     Autoimmune adrenalitis

Autoimmune adrenalitis has been reported in dogs. The adrenal glands are slowly destroyed by a plasmacytic-lymphocytic infiltrate. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      6.     Keratitis sicca

Keratitis sicca occurs in dogs, with a genetic predisposition in Cocker Spaniels. It can occur in either a primary form or secondary to chronic use of sulfonamides. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

V.       Immune-deficiency Diseases

      1.     Deficiencies in Phagocytosis 

Acquired phagocytic deficiencies include disorders that lead to profound and chronic depressions of WBC. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      2.     Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (canine granulocytopathy syndrome) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      3.     Deficiencies in Immunoglobulins 

      1. A.     Idiopathic (essential) hypogammaglobulinemia

Idiopathic (essential) hypogammaglobulinemia is associated with excessive regulatory cell activity that depresses antigen-stimulated immunoglobulin synthesis to B lymphocytes.

      1. B.      Hypogammaglobulinemia

Hypogammaglobulinemia of clinical significance can be associated with any disorder that interferes with immunoglobulin synthesis.

  1. a.      Congenital hypogammaglobulinemia

Congenital hypogammaglobulinemia (common variable immunodeficiency) has been recognized either by itself or in combination with deficiencies in cell-mediated immunity (combined immunodeficiency, see below).

  1. b.      Transient hypogammaglobulinemia

Transient hypogammaglobulinemia has been recognized most frequently in puppies. It is congenital and manifest by a delay in development of active immunity. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      4.     Combined Immunodeficiency Disease 

Affected dogs are frequently asymptomatic during the first several months of life but become progressively more susceptible to microbial infections as maternal antibody wanes. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      5.     Complement Deficiencies 

      1. A.     A congenital deficiency of C3 has been described in an inbred line of Brittany Spaniels. These dogs developed recurrent bacterial infections, especially skin diseases and pneumonias. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

 

        B.      Congenital deficiency in the C1 inhibitor has been recognized in humans and occurs rarely in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      6.     Selective Immunodeficiencies 

      1. A.     Rottweiler puppies have a breed predilection for severe and often fatal canine parvovirus infections. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.
      2. B.      Persian cats have a predilection toward severe, and sometimes protracted, dermatophyte infections. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.
      3. C.     Focal and systemic aspergillosis, and mycoses due to related fungi, affect certain types of dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian

      7.     Viral-induced Immunodeficiencies 

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, originally feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus) is a related lentivirus that has been identified in domestic cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    VI.       Tumors of the Immune System 

Cancer is the number one cause of death in dogs; 45% of dogs ¡Ã10 yr old die of cancer. Lymphoma is one of the most prevalent tumors in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    VII.       Gammopathies 

Gammopathies are conditions in which serum immunoglobulin levels are greatly increased. Using electrophonetic patterns, they can be classified either as polyclonal (increases in all major immunoglobulin classes) or monoclonal (increases in a single homogeneous immunoglobulin). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.