Musculoskeletal Diseases

Congenital and Inherited Anomalies of the Musculoskeletal System

    1.     Dyschondroplasia 

Dyschondroplasia of the appendicular and axial skeletons is seen in dogs. In some breeds (Bassets, Dachshunds, Pekingese), the appendicular dyschondroplastic characteristics are an important feature of breed type. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Dystrophy-like Myopathies 

Several types of muscular dystrophy are seen in dogs. Affected dogs, generally males, develop progressive muscular weakness, dysphagia, stiffness of gait, and muscular atrophy. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Glycogen Storage Disease 

Progressive muscular weakness and inability to rise properly may be seen in animals with glycogen storage diseases. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Osteochondrosis 

Osteochondrosis is a disturbance in endochondral ossification that is sometimes classified as dyschondroplasia. It is most common in large and giant breeds of dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Osteogenesis Imperfecta 

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a generalized, inherited bone defect in dogs and cats, characterized by extreme fragility of bones and joint laxity. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    6.     Osteopetrosis 

Osteopetrosis is characterized by premature stillbirth 10 days to 1 mo before term, brachygnathia inferior, impacted molar teeth, and easily fractured long bones. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

II.       Dystrophies Associated with Calcium, Phosphorus, and Vitamin D

    1.     Nutritional Osteodystrophies

  1. A.     Rickets 

Rickets is a disease of young, growing animals. The most common causes are dietary insufficiencies of phosphorus or vitamin D. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Osteomalacia (Adult rickets)

Osteomalacia has a pathogenesis similar to that of rickets but it is seen in mature bones. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Metabolic Osteodystrophies

  1. A.     Fibrous Osteodystrophy (Rubber jaw syndrome)

 

    1. a.      Primary Hyperparathyroidism 

In primary hyperparathyroidism, there is excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by an autonomous functional lesion in the parathyroid gland. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. b.      Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism is a complication of chronic renal failure characterized by increased endogenous levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). It occurs frequently in dogs, occasionally in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Hypoparathyroidism 

In Hypoparathyroidism, either subnormal amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are secreted, or the hormone secreted is unable to interact normally with target cells. It has been recognized primarily in dogs, particularly in smaller breeds such as Miniature Schnauzers. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

III.       Lameness

Signs of musculoskeletal disorders include weakness, lameness, limb swelling, and joint dysfunction. Motor or sensory neurologic impairment may develop secondary to neuromuscular lesions. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

IV.       Arthropathies and Related Disorders

    1.     Aseptic Necrosis of the Femoral Head (Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease) 

This deterioration of the femoral head seen in young miniature and small breeds of dogs is associated with ischemia and avascular necrosis of the bone. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Patellar Luxation 

This hereditary disorder in dogs and cats is characterized by ectopic development of the patella medial or lateral to the trochlear groove of the femur. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Osteochondrosis 

Osteochondrosis is a developmental disorder of medium and large rapidly growing dogs that is characterized by abnormal endochondral ossification of epiphyseal cartilage in the shoulder, elbow, stifle, and hock joints. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Elbow Dysplasia (Ununited anconeal process, Fragmented medial coronoid process, Osteochondrosis of the humeral condyle)

Elbow dysplasia is a generalized incongruency of the elbow joint in young, large, rapidly growing dogs that is related to abnormal bone growth, joint stresses, or cartilage development. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is a multifactorial abnormal development of the coxofemoral joint in large dogs that is characterized by joint laxity and subsequent degenerative joint disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    6.     Degenerative Arthritis (Degenerative joint disease, Osteoarthritis) 

Progressive deterioration of articular cartilage in diarthrodial joints is characterized by hyaline cartilage thinning, joint effusion, and periarticular osteophyte formation. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    7.     Septic Arthritis 

Infectious arthritis is most frequently associated with bacterial agents such as staphylococci, streptococci, and coliforms. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    8.     Immune-mediated Arthritis 

Inflammatory polyarthritis secondary to deposition of immune complexes can produce erosive (destruction of articular cartilage and subchondral bone) or nonerosive (periarticular inflammation) forms of joint diseases. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    9.     Neoplastic Arthritis 

Synovial cell sarcoma is the most common malignant tumor involving the joints. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    10. Joint Trauma

  1. A.     Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture 

Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament is most frequently due to excessive trauma and a possibly weakened ligament secondary to degeneration, immune-mediated diseases, or conformational defects (straight-legged dogs). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Joint Fractures 

Traumatic fractures frequently involve the shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Palmar Carpal Breakdown

This hyperextension injury secondary to falls or jumps produces excessive force on the carpus, which leads to collapse of the proximal, middle, and/or distal joints secondary to tearing of the palmar carpal ligaments and fibrocartilage. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Hip Luxation 

Traumatic dislocation of the hip is most frequently a craniodorsal displacement of the femoral head relative to the acetabulum. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

V.       Myopathies

    1.     Yellow Fat Disease (Nutritional steatitis, Nutritional panniculitis) 

Yellow fat disease is characterized by a marked inflammation of adipose tissue and deposition of “ceroid” pigment in fat cells. It may be seen alone in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Type II Muscle Fiber Deficiency 

Type II muscle fiber deficiency is a congenital myopathy that has been described in Labrador Retrievers. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Fibrotic Myopathy 

Fibrotic myopathy is a chronic, progressive, idiopathic, degenerative disorder affecting the semitendinosus, gracilis, quadriceps, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus muscles, primarily in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Myositis Ossificans 

Myositis ossificans is an idiopathic non-neoplastic form of heterotopic ossification of fibrous connective tissue and muscle that frequently affects tissues near the hip joint in Doberman Pinschers. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Polymyositis 

Polymyositis is a systemic, noninfectious, possibly immune-mediated, inflammatory muscle disorder in adult dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    6.     Masticatory Myositis (Eosinophilic myositis) 

Masticatory myositis is an immune-mediated, inflammatory condition that affects the muscles of mastication. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    7.     Feline Hypokalemic Polymyopathy 

Feline hypokalemic polymyopathy is a generalized metabolic muscle weakness disorder in cats secondary to hypokalemia associated with excessive urinary depletion or inadequate dietary intake. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    8.     Malignant Hyperthermia 

Malignant hyperthermia is a hypermetabolic disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by catabolism and contracure usually secondary to inhalant anesthetic agents and stress. It is seen most frequently in heavily muscled dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    9.     Exertional Myopathy (Rhabdomyolysis, Tying-up, Monday morning disease) 

This acute exertional myopathy of racing Greyhounds and working dogs is characterized by muscle ischemia secondary to exercise or excitement. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    10. Muscular Trauma 

  1. A.     Infraspinatus Contracture

Infraspinatus contracture is a uni- or bilateral fibrotic myopathy of the infraspinatus muscle that is usually secondary to trauma in hunting or working dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Tenosynovitis of the Biceps Brachii Tendon

This inflammation of the biceps brachii tendon of origin and associated synovial sheath can be uni- or bilateral. It usually affects mature, large dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Quadriceps Contracture (Quadriceps Tie-down, Stiff Stifle Disease)

This serious fibrosis and contracture of the quadriceps muscles develops secondary to distal femoral fractures, inadequate surgical repair, and excessive dissection in young dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Achilles Tendon Disruption (Dropped Hock)

This acute, traumatic injury to the common calcaneal tendon (gastrocnemius, superficial digital flexor, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and gracilis muscle tendons) is seen primarily in mature working and athletic dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    11. Muscle Tumors 

Primary skeletal muscle tumors can be benign or malignant. Secondary tumors involved with metastatic spread include lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and adenocarcinomas. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

VI.       Osteopathies

    1.     Developmental Osteopathies

  1. A.     Angular Deformity of the Forelimb (Radial and ulnar dysplasia)

Abnormal development of the radius and ulna can occur secondary to distal physeal injury or hereditary breed characteristics. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Craniomandibular Osteopathy 

Craniomandibular osteopathy is a non-neoplastic, proliferative bone disorder of growing dogs that affects the mandible and tympanic bullae of Terrier breeds. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy 

Hypertrophic osteodystrophy is a developmental disorder of the metaphyses in long bones of young, growing dogs, usually of a large or giant breed. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Multiple Cartilaginous Exostoses (Osteochondromatosis) 

Multiple cartilaginous exostoses is a proliferative disease of young dogs and cats characterized by multiple ossified protuberances arising from metaphyseal cortical surfaces of the long bones, vertebrae, and ribs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Panosteitis 

Panosteitis is a spontaneous, self-limiting disease of young, rapidly growing, large and giant dogs that primarily affects the diaphyses and metaphyses of long bone. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. F.      Retained Ulnar Cartilage Cores 

Retained ulnar cartilage cores is a developmental disorder of the distal ulnar physis in young, large, and giant dogs characterized by abnormal endochondral ossification. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. G.     Scottish Fold Osteodystrophy 

This heritable condition of Scottish Fold cats is characterized by skeletal deformations of the vertebrae, metacarpal and metatarsal bones, and phalanges secondary to abnormal endochondral ossification. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Osteomyelitis 

Inflammation and infection of the medullary cavity, cortex, and periosteum of bone are most frequently associated with bacteria. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Hypertrophic Osteopathy 

Hypertrophic osteopathy is a diffuse periosteal proliferative condition of long bones in dogs secondary to neoplastic or infectious masses in the thoracic or abdominal cavity. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Nutritional Osteopathies 

Reduced bone mass, bone deformities, exostoses, pathologic fractures, and loose teeth (rubber jaw) are skeletal manifestations of nutritional derangements that affect parathyroid hormone function and calcium and vitamin metabolism. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Bone tumors 

Skeletal tumors can be benign or malignant and primary or secondary to metastases or adjacent soft-tissue structures. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    6.     Bone Trauma 

Vehicular accidents, firearms, fight, or falls frequently causes bone fractures. Fractures can be open or closed and involve single or multiple bones. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    VII.       Sarcocystosis (Sarcosporidiosis)

In sarcocystosis, protozoans of the genus Sarcocystis invade the endothelium and muscles and other soft tissues. As the name implies, Sarcocystis spp form cysts in various intermediate hosts including humans. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.