Neurologic Diseases

CONGENITAL AND INHERITED ANOMALIES

    1.     Cerebral disorders

  1. A.     Hydranencephaly

In hydranencephaly, there is a marked loss of cerebral cortical tissue within a cranial vault of normal conformation. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus, an increase in volume of the CSF, can appear similar to hydranencephaly, but in hydrocephalus the ventricles retain a complete ependymal lining. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Lissencephaly

Lissencephaly, an absence or reduction of cerebral gyri, is a rare disorder. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Pug encephalitis

Pug encephalitis is an ultimately fatal disease that may have a familial basis. Dogs show behavioral changes, seizures, and CSF pleocytosis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Idiopathic epilepsy

A specific type of seizure known as temporal lobe epilepsy appears to be familial in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and is characterized by behavioral manifestations such as fly biting. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. F.      Hepatic encephalopathy

Hepatic encephalopathy is usually caused by a congenital portosystemic shunt. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. G.     Lysosomal storage disorders

Lysosomal storage disorders that commonly cause seizures include ceroid lipofuscinosis and fucosidosis (see multifocal disorders). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. H.     Puppy hypoglycemia

Puppy hypoglycemia is an idiopathic syndrome in toy breeds of dogs that is seen in the first 6 mo of life. It seems to relate to a relative immaturity of the liver and can usually be managed by providing frequent meals of a commercial puppy diet. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. I.       Narcolepsy or cataplexy

Narcolepsy or cataplexy is inherited in Doberman Pinschers, Labrador Retrievers, and Dachshunds and has been described in additional canine breeds. It is rare in cats. It must be differentiated from various types of syncope. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Cerebellar disorders

  1. A.     Cerebellar hypoplasia

Cerebellar hypoplasia is seen in kittens after in utero infection with feline panleukopenia virus (Feline Panleukopenia). The condition is nonprogressive, and affected animals may make suitable pets. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Cerebellar abiotrophies

Cerebellar abiotrophies have been described in a number of breeds of dogs. In abiotrophies, the cerebellar development proceeds normally, and the animal remains unaffected for a period of months or even years before cerebellar neurons begin to die off prematurely. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Congenital hypomyelination

Congenital hypomyelination is seen as a familial/inherited disorder in Springer Spaniels, Chow Chows, Weimaraners, and Bernese Mountain Dogs, usually with signs developing around 2-8 wk of age. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Spinal cord disorders

  1. A.     Spinal muscular atrophy

Spinal muscular atrophy is an inherited lower motor neuron (LMN) disorder in Brittany Spaniels that can have an early (by 1 mo), intermediate (by 4-6 mo), or delayed (>1 yr old) onset. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Demyelination of miniature Poodles

Demyelination of miniature Poodles is presumed to be an inherited disorder involving primarily the spinal cord. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Ataxia of Jack Russell and Smooth-haired Fox Terriers

Ataxia of Jack Russell and Smooth-haired Fox Terriers causes ataxia and dysmetria of the pelvic limbs at <6 mo of age. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Afghan Hound myelopathy

Afghan Hound myelopathy is an inherited disorder that causes both demyelination and necrosis of the spinal cord. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Neuraxonal dystrophy

Neuraxonal dystrophy is described in both cats and dogs but primarily in Rottweiler dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. F.      Leukoencephalomyelopathy of Rottweilers

Leukoencephalomyelopathy of Rottweilers has a later onset than neuraxonal dystrophy (see above), usually at ~2-3 yr of age. t is possible that the disorders have a similar basis because animals occasionally may show histopathologic features of both conditions. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. G.     Calcium phosphate deposition in Great Danes

Calcium phosphate deposition in Great Danes causes mineralization of soft tissues and bone deformity, with dorsal displacement of C7. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. H.     Progressive axonopathy of Boxer dogs

Progressive axonopathy of Boxer dogs causes patellar hyporeflexia, severe dysmetria, loss of paw position sense, and spastic paresis at 1-7 mo of age. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. I.       Breed-associated aseptic meningitis (steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis)

Breed-associated aseptic meningitis has been reported in Beagles, Bernese Mountain Dogs, Boxers, German Shorthaired Pointers, and sporadically in other breeds. The main signs are neck pain, pyrexia, and dramatic pleocytosis in the CSF in young dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. J.       Congenital vertebral malformations

Congenital vertebral malformations include hemivertebrae (shortened or misshapen vertebrae), block (fused) vertebrae, and butterfly vertebrae (having a sagittal cleft). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. K.      Caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy (wobbler syndrome)

Caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy may have a heritable basis in Borzois (5-8 yr) and Basset Hounds (<8 mo) and probably also Doberman Pinschers (³2 yr) and Great Danes (<2 yr). Neurologic deficits range from mild ataxia of the pelvic limbs to tetraplegia. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. L.      Atlantoaxial subluxation

Atlantoaxial subluxation is most commonly seen as a congenital disorder in young toy or miniature breeds of dogs. Signs usually develop within the first few years of life and consist of an acute or slowly progressive onset of neck pain or gait dysfunction, ranging from ataxia to tetraplegia. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. M.    Arachnoid cysts (meningeal cysts, leptomeningeal cysts, subarachnoid cysts)

Arachnoid cysts cause accumulations of CSF and a focal myelopathy in young dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. N.     Spinal dysraphism or myelodysplasia

Spinal dysraphism or myelodysplasia includes anomalies of the skin, vertebrae, and spinal cord that are secondary to faulty closure of the neural tube. Spinal dysraphism is inherited in Weimaraners. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. O.     Syringomyelia

Syringomyelia is the development of one or more fluid-filled cavities within the spinal cord. Hydromyelia is accumulation of fluid within an enlarged central canal of the spinal cord. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. P.      Spina bifida occulta

Spina bifida occulta is a failure of the neural arch to fuse; if the spinal cord is also involved, it is called spina bifida manifesta. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. Q.     Pilonidal sinus (dermoid sinus, dermoid cyst)

Pilonidal sinus is another consequence of faulty neural tubulation that appears to be inherited in Rhodesian Ridgeback dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. R.      Epidermoid cysts

Epidermoid cysts are rare lesions that arise from entrapment of epithelial cells during closure of the neural tube. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Peripheral nerve and muscle disorders

  1. A.     Hypertrophic neuropathy of Tibetan Mastiff dogs

Hypertrophic neuropathy of Tibetan Mastiff dogs causes paraparesis by 8 wk and may progress to tetraparesis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Alaskan Malamute polyneuropathy

Alaskan Malamute polyneuropathy affects Alaskan Malamutes 10-18 mo old. There is exercise intolerance, paraparesis progressing to tetraparesis, muscle atrophy, hyporeflexia, and, in some cases, laryngeal paralysis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Congenital laryngeal paralysis

Congenital laryngeal paralysis is seen in Bouvier des Flandres and Siberian Huskies, Rottweilers, and Bull Terriers <1 yr old. It results in exercise intolerance and inspiratory dyspnea. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Primary hyperoxaluria (L-glyceric aciduria)

Primary hyperoxaluria (L-glyceric aciduria) is a rare inherited neurofilament disorder of domestic shorthaired cats that results in renal disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Neuropathy of hereditary hyperchylomicronemia (hyperlipidemia)

Neuropathy of hereditary hyperchylomicronemia causes a generalized peripheral neuropathy in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. F.      Sensory neuropathy of longhaired Dachshunds

Sensory neuropathy of longhaired Dachshunds causes pelvic limb ataxia at 8-12 wk of age. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. G.     Sensory neuropathy in Pointers

Sensory neuropathy in Pointers is seen in English Pointers in the USA and Shorthaired Pointers in Europe. Self-mutilation of the digits is the main clinical sign, and the disease onset is before 6 mo of age. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. H.     Congenital myasthenia gravis

Congenital myasthenia gravis has been described in Jack Russell Terrier, Smooth-haired Fox Terrier, and Springer Spaniel puppies. It is due to either a deficiency or dysfunction of the acetylcholine receptor. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. I.       Scotty cramp

Scotty cramp causes episodes of muscular hypertonicity in Scottish Terrier puppies. These episodes are exacerbated by excitement, exercise, stress, and poor health and are characterized by a hypermetric gait and arching of the spine, which can cause the dog to somersault when it runs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. J.       Congenital myoclonus of Labrador Retrievers

Congenital myoclonus of Labrador Retrievers causes muscle spasms/hypertonicity from an early age. Puppies may be unable to walk or even maintain a sternal position due to extensor rigidity. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. K.      Hypokalemic myopathy of Burmese cats

Hypokalemic myopathy of Burmese cats causes periodic paralysis or weakness with ventral flexion of the neck. Cats are affected at 3-4 mo of age. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. L.      Myotonia congenital

Myotonia congenita is seen in Chow Chows, Staffordshire Terriers, Great Danes, and Miniature Schnauzers. There is often a degree of muscle hypertrophy, and marked stiffness is seen when dogs first rise. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. M.    X-linked muscular dystrophies

X-linked muscular dystrophies are due to mutations in the dystrophin gene. Males show muscle stiffness, dysphagia, and weakness at an early age, along with a plantigrade stance and muscle atrophy, as the animal gets older. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. N.     Labrador Retriever myopathy

Labrador Retriever myopathy causes a stiff gait and marked muscle atrophy in puppies of both sexes. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. O.     Dermatomyositis of Collies and Shetland Sheepdogs

Dermatomyositis of Collies and Shetland Sheepdogs (inherited with variable expressivity) causes atrophy and weakness of the masticatory and distal limb muscles from a few months of age sometimes associated with trismus and megaesophagus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. P.      Glycogen storage diseases

Glycogen storage diseases can cause muscle weakness and exercise intolerance in young dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. Q.     Mitochondrial myopathy

Mitochondrial myopathy has been described in Clumber and Sussex Spaniels and in Old English Sheepdogs. Mitochondrial myopathies result in exercise intolerance and collapse, and blood lactate and pyruvate levels are often increased after exercise. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. R.      Nemaline rod myopathy

Nemaline rod myopathy in cats causes weakness and later a hypermetric gait at 6-18 mo of age. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. S.     Central core myopathy

Central core myopathy has been described as a cause of weakness, muscle atrophy, and exercise intolerance/collapse in young Great Danes in the UK. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. T.     Congenital megaesophagus

Congenital megaesophagus is inherited in Wirehaired Fox Terriers and Miniature Schnauzers, and possibly also in German Shepherds, Great Danes, Irish Setters, Newfoundlands, Shar-Peis, Greyhounds, and Siamese cats. Clinical signs include regurgitation and aspiration pneumonia. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. U.     Devon Rex cat hereditary myopathy

Devon Rex cat hereditary myopathy is seen in kittens around 4-7 wk old and is characterized by exercise intolerance and passive ventroflexion of the head and neck, which is especially noticeable during locomotion, urination, or defecation. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Multifocal disorders

  1. A.     Multisystemic chromatolytic neuronal degeneration

Multisystemic chromatolytic neuronal degeneration in Cairn Terriers causes paraparesis in young puppies that progress rapidly to produce cerebellar involvement with bouts of cataplectic collapse. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Multisystemic neuronal degeneration

Multisystemic neuronal degeneration has also been reported in red-haired Cocker Spaniels and causes abnormal behavior and cerebellar signs. Neuronal changes are found in various brain-stem nuclei. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. C.     Hydrocephalus in Bull Mastiffs

Hydrocephalus in Bull Mastiffs is an inherited disorder that is also associated with abnormal myelin. It results in blindness, abnormal behavior, and cerebellar signs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. D.     Dalmatian leukodystrophy

Dalmatian leukodystrophy is a rare inherited condition that causes visual deficits with progressive ataxia and tetraparesis at 3-6 mo of age. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. E.      Fibrinoid leukodystrophy

Fibrinoid leukodystrophy results in progressive ataxia and tetraparesis with personality changes, starting at 6 mo of age. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. F.      Spongiform degenerative conditions

Spongiform degenerative conditions have been described in young dogs and cats and are often associated with signs of ataxia/hypermetria, head tremors, intermittent contractures, postural abnormalities, and behavioral changes. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. G.     Hereditary quadriplegia and amblyopia in Irish Setters

Hereditary quadriplegia and amblyopia in Irish Setters produces signs of head tremor, visual impairment, nystagmus, inability to stand, and seizures beginning at birth. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. H.     Lysosomal Storage Disorders

This clinically rare group of conditions results from deficiency of an enzyme that is essential for the metabolism of a protein, carbohydrate, or lipid substrate. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    6.     Miscellaneous congenital disorders

  1. A.     Congenital vestibular disease

Vestibular dysfunction is manifest by varying degrees of head tilt, nystagmus, circling, and rolling at an early age. In some animals, the signs may resolve spontaneously. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  1. B.      Congenital deafness

Congenital deafness is primarily associated with Dalmatians but has also been recorded in a number of breeds. It is linked to blue eye color in white cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

          II.      DEMYELINATING DISORDERS - Hypomyelination and dysmyelination

Hypomyelination and dysmyelination are developmental disorders of myelination characterized by axons with thin myelin sheaths, or by axons that are nonmyelinated or with abnormal myelin. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

III.      PERILHERAL NERVE AND NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

1.     Degenerative diseases

  • A.     Dancing Doberman disease
  • Dancing Doberman disease is a neuromuscular disease that occurs in Doberman Pinschers of either sex, 6 mo to 7 yr old. Initially, affected dogs intermittently flex the hip and stifle of one pelvic limb while standing. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Distal denervating disease
  • Distal denervating disease is a common polyneuropathy of dogs in the UK. The cause is unknown. Any age and breed of dog may be affected. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • C.     Distal polyneuropathy of Rottweiler dogs
  • Distal polyneuropathy of Rottweiler dogs is characterized by paraparesis that slowly progresses to tetraparesis, hyporeflexia, and muscle atrophy. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • D.     Fucosidosis in English Springer Spaniel
  • Fucosidosis in English Springer Spaniel is an inherited deficiency of a-L-fucosidase. As a consequence of the enzyme deficiency, there is progressive intralysosomal accumulation of fucose-containing substrates within various tissues, especially the central and peripheral nervous systems. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • E.      Hereditary polyneuropathy in Alaskan Malamutes
  • Hereditary polyneuropathy in Alaskan Malamutes is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of peripheral nerves. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • F.      Hypertrophic neuropathy of Tibetan Mastiff dogs
  • Hypertrophic neuropathy of Tibetan Mastiff dogs is a recessively inherited demyelinating. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • G.     Laryngeal paralysis
  • Laryngeal paralysis is usually due to interruption of the innervation of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles; the result is failure of the arytenoids cartilages and vocal folds to abduct, which leads to airway obstruction. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • H.     Progressive axonopathy of Boxer dogs
  • Progressive axonopathy of Boxer dogs is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in degeneration of the central and peripheral nervous systems. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • I.       Sensory neuropathy in Pointers
  • Sensory neuropathy in Pointers is inherited disorder that primarily affects sensory nerves. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • J.       Sensory neuropathy of Dachshunds
  • Clinical signs are recognized at 8-12 wk of age and consist of ataxia, decreased proprioception, and widespread loss of pain perception. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Inflammatory disorders

  • A.     Acquired myasthenia gravis
  • Acquired myasthenia gravis is failure of neuromuscular conduction due to reduction in number of acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Acute idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis (Dogs > Cats)
  • Acute idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis is a common inflammatory disease primarily affecting the ventral nerve roots and peripheral nerves. It is common in dogs and rare in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • C.     Chronic relapsing idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis (Rare)
  • Chronic relapsing idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis is a rare disease associated with inflammation of the nerves and nerve roots. It affects mature dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • D.     Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
  • Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is fairly common in adult dogs and cats. Onset of tetraparesis with hyporeflexia is insidious and is sometimes accompanied by cranial nerve dysfunction. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • E.      Protozoal polyradiculoneuritis
  • Protozoal polyradiculoneuritis occurs in dogs, especially puppies. Inflammation of nerve roots, peripheral nerves, and skeletal muscle results in progressive paralysis and rigidity of the pelvic limbs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • F.      Trigeminal neuritis (idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy) (Dogs>Cats)
  • Trigeminal neuritis is common in dogs and uncommon in cats. It is characterized by acute onset of flaccid jaw paralysis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Metabolic disorders

    A.     Diabetic neuropathy (Rare)

    Diabetic neuropathy is an uncommon complication of diabetes mellitus in cats and rarely dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Hypothyroid neuropathy (Dogs)
  • Hypothyroid neuropathy is a common neuropathy in dogs with hypothyroidism. Mature dogs, especially large-breed dogs, are predisposed. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Neoplasia

    A.     Nerve sheath tumors (Dogs)

    Nerve sheath tumors include those tumors referred to as schwannomas, neurilemmomas, and neurofibromas. They are seen in most domestic animals but are most common in dogs and cattle. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Paraneoplastic neuropathy (Dogs)
  • Paraneoplastic neuropathy refers to neuropathy associated with neoplasia unrelated to tumor infiltration of nerves. It is most common in dogs with insulinoma but has been associated with a variety of tumors. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    5.     Toxic disorders

  • A.     Botulism
  • Botulism is intoxication with a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. It is uncommon in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Ionophore toxicity (Ionophore Toxicity)
  • Ionophore toxicity has been seen in cattle, sheep, pigs, dogs, cats, and poultry. Lasalocid-contaminated food has caused flaccid tetraparesis with hyporeflexia in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • C.     Organophosphate poisoning
  • Organophosphate poisoning can cause 3 syndromes; the acute form, intermediate form, and delayed form. If your pet is exposed to organophosphate products such as insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases, solvents, plasticizers, and EP additives, please contact your veterinarian as soon as possible. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • D.     Tick paralysis
  • Tick paralysis is characterized by rapidly progressing paralysis caused by several species of ticks. Some female ticks produce a salivary toxin that interferes with acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    6.     Trauma

  • A.     Brachial plexus avulsion
  • Brachial plexus avulsion occurs in dogs, cats, and birds due to traumatic injury to the C6 to T2 nerve roots that innervate the thoracic limb. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • B.      Peripheral nerve injuries
  • Peripheral nerve injuries are some of the most common neuropathies in animals. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    7.     Vascular Diseases - Ischemic neuromyopathy (Cats>Dogs)

    Ischemic neuromyopathy is most common in cats with arterial thromboembolism secondary to myocardial disease. It also is seen in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    IV.      SPINAL COLUMN AND CORD

      1.     Degenerative diseases

    1. A.     Degenerative myelopathy

    Degenerative myelopathy of dogs is a slowly progressive, noninflammatory degeneration of the axons and myelin in the white matter of the spinal cord. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Intervertebral disk disease

    Intervertebral disk disease is degeneration and protrusion of the Intervertebral disk that results in compression of the spinal cord, spinal nerve, and/or nerve root. It is a common cause of spinal cord disease in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. C.     Degeneration of motor neurons

    Degeneration of motor neurons occurs as an inherited or sporadic disease in Brittanies, Pointers, German Shepherd Dogs, Doberman Pinschers, and Rottweilers; cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. D.     Lumbosacral stenosis

    Lumbosacral stenosis is narrowing of the lumbosacral vertebral canal that results in compression of the cauda equina. It is most common in large breeds of dogs, especially German Shepherd Dogs and is rare in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. E.      Metabolic storage disorders

    Metabolic storage disorders are rare, usually inherited, metabolic disorders that can affect the CNS, including the spinal cord. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. F.      Spondylosis deformans

    Spondylosis deformans is noninflammatory, degenerative disease characterized by production of osteophytes along the ventral and lateral aspect of the vertebral bodies. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      2.     Inflammatory and infectious diseases

    A.     Bacterial diseases

    1. a.     Diskospondylitis

    Diskospondylitis is inflammation of the Intervertebral disk and adjacent vertebral bodies. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. b.     Vertebral osteomyelitis

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is inflammation of the vertebra without concurrent disk infection. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Rickettsial diseases (Dogs)

    Neurologic abnormalities, including signs of spinal cord dysfunction, are sometimes seen in dogs with rickettsial infection. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    C.     Viral Diseases

    1. a.     Canine distemper encephalomyelitis

    Canine distemper encephalomyelitis, caused by a Morbillivirus, remains one of the most common CNS disorders in dogs worldwide. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. b.     Caprine arthritis and encephalomyelitis

    Caprine arthritis and encephalomyelitis is caused by a lentivirus that can cause pneumonitis and arthritis. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. c.     Feline infectious peritonitis

    Feline infectious peritonitis is a disease of domestic cats caused by an immune-mediated response to a coronavirus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. d.     Rabies

    Rabies is caused by a neurotropic rhabdovirus that reaches the CNS via peripheral nerves. It produces multifocal, nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis in all domestic mammals. Prevention is by vaccination. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    D.     Fungal diseases

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common fungus to involve the CNS in animals. Infection is most common in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    E.      Protozoal diseases

    1. a.     Neosporosis

    Neosporosis is caused by Neospora caninum, a protozoan that can cause a nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, most commonly in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. b.     Toxoplasmosis

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii and can occasionally cause a nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis in dogs and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    F.      Parasitic diseases

    Verminous myelitis is inflammation of the spinal cord caused by parasite migration. Cuterebra spp in cats and Baylisascaris procyonis in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

     

    G.     Idiopathic inflammatory disease
    1. a.     Feline nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis (feline polioencephalomyelitis, staggering disease)

    Feline nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis is a slowly progressive, inflammatory disease of the CNS in domestic cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. b.     Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME)

    Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis is an inflammatory disease of the CNS in dogs worldwide. The cause is unknown, although an infectious agent, most likely a virus, is suspected. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      3.     Neoplasia

    1. A.     Dogs

    In dogs, neoplasms commonly affecting the spinal cord include osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, meningioma, nerve sheath tumor, and metastatic neoplasia. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Cats

    In cats, lymphoma is the most common neoplasia to affect the spinal cord. Adult cats of any age can be affected. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      4.     Nutritional Disorders - Hypervitaminosis A (Cats)

    Hypervitaminosis A develops in cats fed excess vitamin A, usually diets consisting largely of liver. This results in extensive exostoses, most prominent in the cervical and thoracic spine. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      5.     Trauma

    Acute spinal cord injuries are commonly associated with spinal fracture or luxation. Common causes in dogs and cats are automobile accidents, bite wounds, and gunshot wounds. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      6.     Toxic disorders

    1. A.     Delayed organophosphate intoxication

    Delayed organophosphate intoxication can occur after oral or topical administration of organophosphate-containing insecticides or anthelmentics, including haloxon. If your pet is exposed to these products, please contact your veterinarian as soon as possible. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    1. B.      Tetanus

    Toxins produced by the vegetative form of Clostridium tetani cause tetanus. Susceptibility varies markedly among species, with dogs and cats being fairly resistant.  For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      7.     Vascular diseases - Fibrocartilaginous embolism

    Fibrocartilagenous embolism results in ischemia and infarction of the spinal cord. The cause is occlusion of spinal cord arteries or veins (or both) with fragments of fibrocartilage, believed to arise from the intervertebral disks. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

       

      V.      DYSAUTONOMIA

      1.     Feline dysautonomia

      Feline dysautonomia is characterized by widespread dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. All breeds and age groups are susceptible. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

       

        2.     Canine Dysautonomia

      Cases have been reported from both Europe and the USA, where canine dysautonomia is seen primarily in the Midwest. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      VI.      FACIAL PARALYSIS

      Asymmetry of facial expression is common with unilateral lesions of the facial nucleus or nerve in most species. Bilateral facial paralysis may be more difficult to recognize, but affected animals drool and have a dull facial expression. Complete facial paralysis is an inability to move the eyelids, ears, lips, or nostrils. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      VII.      CNS DISEASES CAUSED BY HELMINTHS AND ARTHROPODS

        1.     Cestodes – Coenurosis

      Taenia multiceps multiceps is an intestinal parasite of canids (especially dogs) and humans. Some oncospheres reach the brain and develop by endogenous budding into a metacestode (larval) stage. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

        2.     Trematodes

      1. A.     Paragonimiasis

      Paragonimus westermani and P kellicotti, the lung flukes, have been reported to migrate aberrantly and produce cysts in the brain and spinal cord of pigs, dogs, cats, rats, and humans. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. B.      Schistosomiasis

      Schistosomes, or blood flukes, normally deposit their eggs in the small vessels of the gut and urinary bladder. Some eggs, however, may get into the general circulation and may reach the CNS where they become encapsulated. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

        3.      Nematodes

      1. A.     Ascarids

      The larvae of some ascarid roundworms, including Toxocara spp of dogs and cats can cause CNS disease. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. B.      Filarids

      Dirofilaria immitis is often referred to as the canine heartworm but can also infect cats and ferrets. D immitis has been recovered from a variety of aberrant sites, including the CNS of its definitive hosts and the anterior chamber of the eye. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

      1. C.       Metastrongyles

      Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a common parasite of the pulmonary arteries of rats in Southeast Asia and the south Pacific. In Australia, A cantonensis has produced an ascending paralysis in puppies. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

        4.     Arthropods

      Myiasis is the development of larval dipteran flies (bots and warbles) within the tissues or organs of humans and other domestic or wild animals. Myiasis involving the CNS is rather uncommon. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        5.     Limb Paralysis

      Paralysis of one limb is referred to as monoplegia and is most often associated with diseases of the peripheral spinal nerves. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

      VIII.      LOUPING ILL (OVINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS)

      Louping ill is an acute, tick-transmitted viral disease of the CNS that primarily affects sheep, but dogs and people also can be affected; humans can be infected by tick bites or exposure to tissues or instruments contaminated with virus. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

              IX.      MENINGITIS AND ENCEPHALITIS

      Inflammation of the meninges (meningitis) and inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) often are seen simultaneously (meningoencephalitis) in the same animal, although either can be seen separately. Causes of meningitis, encephalitis, and meningoencephalitis include bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, rickettsia, parasite migrations, chemical agents, and idiopathic or immune-mediated diseases. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

                 X.      MOTION SICKNESS

      Motion sickness is characterized by nausea, excessive salivation, and vomiting, and affected animals may have other signs referable to stimulation of the autonomic nervous system. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

              XI.      NEOPLASIA

        1.     Brain tumors

        1. A.     Astrocytomas

        Astrocytomas are probably the most common neuroectodermal brain tumor in dogs. They are usually found in adult dogs, but they have been reported in dogs <6 mo old. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. B.      Choroid plexus papillomas

        Choroid plexus papillomas are common tumors in dogs. Choroid plexus papillomas have no apparent predilection for brachycephalic breeds and are rare in cats. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. C.     Ependymomas

        Ependymomas originate from the epithelium lining the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. They are rare, but have been reported most frequently in brachycephalic breeds. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. D.     Gangliocytomas

        Gangliocytomas are rare intracranial tumors reported in adult dogs of several breeds. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. E.      Hamartomas

        Hamartomas are formed by disorderly overgrowth of tissues normally present at a site. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. F.      Hematogenous metastatic brain tumors

        Hematogenous metastatic brain tumors commonly originate from extracranial sites. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. G.     Intracranial intra-arachnoid cysts

        Intracranial intra-arachnoid cysts have been reported in dogs. These rare malformation tumors seem to develop most often in the quadrigeminal cistern. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. H.     Malformation tumors

        Malformation tumors, including epidermoid and dermoid cysts and teratomas, originate from heterotopic tissue and are rare tumors in dogs. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. I.       Malignant histiocytosis

        Malignant histiocytosis, which has focal and diffuse forms, is rarely reported in dogs. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. J.       Medulloblastomas

        Medulloblastomas are highly malignant, uncommon neuroectodermal canine tumors that almost always develop in the cerebellum. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. K.      Meningioangiomatosis

        Meningioangiomatosis is a rare, benign malformation of CNS blood vessels in the cerebral cortex and brain stem of juvenile and adult dogs. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. L.      Meningiomas

        Meningiomas are extra-axial tumors. They arise from elements of the dura within the cranial and spinal spaces and are the most commonly reported brain tumors in cats. They are also one of the most common intracranial tumors in dogs. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. M.    Meningeal sarcomatosis

        In meningeal sarcomatosis, sarcomas cause diffuse thickening of the meninges; extensive hemorrhages are common. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. N.     Oligodendrogliomas

        Oligodendrogliomas are common tumors in dogs, particularly in brachycephalic breeds. Oligodendrogliomas are rare in cats. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. O.     Pituitary tumors

        Pituitary tumors are common in dogs, with an apparent predilection for brachycephalic breeds. They are infrequent in cats. Tumors may be functional or nonfunctional. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. P.      Primary skeletal tumors

        Primary skeletal tumors do not typically cause neurologic signs. Multilobular osteochondroma originates in the flat bones of the skull, usually in older medium- or large-breed dogs and appears as a firm, fixed mass. It may erode the cranium and compress, rather than infiltrate, underlying brain tissues. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. Q.     Vascular malformations

        Vascular malformations are considered developmental lesions rather than true neoplasms and are uncommon in both dogs and cats. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

          2.     Spinal Cord Tumors

        1. A.     Extradural tumors

        Extradural tumors are found outside the dura mater and cause spinal cord compression. They are the most common spinal tumors in both cats and dogs. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. B.      Intradural-extramedullary tumors

        Intradural-extramedullary tumors are found in the subarachnoid space. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. C.     Intramedullary tumors

        Intramedullary tumors are the least common of the 3 categories of spinal cord tumors. Primary glial tumors are the most commonly diagnosed. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

        1. D.     Malformation tumors

        Malformation tumors rarely affect the spinal cord. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

          3.     Peripheral Nerve Tumors

        Tumors of cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots are common in dogs, but are rarely seen in cats. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

             XII.      PARANEOPLASTIC DISORDERS

        Paraneoplastic syndromes are nonmetastatic complications of cancer. They can affect all parts of the nervous system. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

          XIII.      PSEUDORABIES (AUJESZKY’S DISEASE, MAD ITCH)

        Pseudorabies is an acute, frequently fatal disease with a worldwide distribution that affects swine primarily and other domestic and wild animals incidentally. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

           XIV.      RABIES

        Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis that principally affects carnivores and bats, although it can affect any mammal. It is invariably fatal once clinical signs appear. Recommended vaccination frequency is every 3 yr, after an initial series of 2 vaccines 1 yr apart. Several vaccines are also available for use in cats. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

              XV.      Tick Paralysis

        Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, ascending motor paralysis caused by a salivary neurotoxin produced by certain species of ticks. Humans (especially children), a wide variety of other mammals, and birds may be affected. Prevention is available. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.

           XVI.      West Nile Encephalomyelitis

        West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonosis and a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex in the genus Flavivirus. WNV is maintained in an enzootic transmission cycle between wild birds and Culex mosquitos. For more information click here of call your veterinarian.