Reproductive Diseases

Congenital and Inherited Anomalies of the Reproductive System

1.     Cryptorchidism

Cryptorchidism is a failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum and is seen in all domestic animals. It is the most common disorder of sexual development in dogs. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

2.     Pseudohermaphrodites

Animals with pseudohermaphrodites have one or the other type of gonad and an anomaly of the external genitalia that resembles, to some degree, that of the opposite sex. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

II.       Cystic Ovary Disease

Among domestic animals, cystic ovary disease occurs sporadically in dogs (Follicular Cysts) and cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

III.       Reproductive Diseases of the Female

1.     Dystocia

Dystocia refers to abnormal or difficult birth. Causes include maternal factors (uterine inertia, inadequate size of birth canal) and/or fetal factors (oversized fetus, abnormal orientation as the fetus enters the birth canal). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

2.     False pregnancy (Pseudopregnancy, Pseudocyesis) 

False pregnancy is common in bitches and uncommon in queens. It occurs at the end of diestrus and is characterized by hyperplasia of the mammary glands, lactation, and behavioral changes. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

3.     Follicular cysts

These fluid-filled structures develop within the ovary and result in prolonged secretion of estrogen, continued signs of proestrus or estrus, and attractiveness to males. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

4.     Mammary hypertrophy hyperplasia complex in cats (Feline mammary hypertrophy, Mammary fibroadenomatosis, Mammary fibroadenoma, Fibroglandular mammary hypertrophy)

This benign, noninflammatory condition is characterized by rapid abnormal growth of one or more mammary glands. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

5.     Mastitis

Mastitis can be septic or nonseptic and involve one or more mammary glands, usually during lactation. Nonseptic mastitis occurs most commonly at weaning. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

6.     Metritis

Metritis is infection of the uterus that occurs postpartum. Predisposing causes include prolonged delivery, dystocia, and retained fetuses or placentas. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

7.     Ovarian remnant syndrome

Ovarian remnant syndrome refers to clinical signs indicating presence of functional ovarian tissue in a previously ovariohysterectomized bitch or queen. It is not a pathologic condition but a complication of ovariohysterectomy. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

8.     Pyometra

Pyometra is a hormonally mediated diestrual disorder characterized by an abnormal uterine endometrium with secondary bacterial infection. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

9.     Subinvolution of Placental Sites (sips)

SIPS is abnormal repair of the endometrial placental sites. This disorder is most common in young bitches (<3 yr old) after whelping a first litter. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

10. Vaginal hyperplasia

In vaginal hyperplasia, a proliferation of the vaginal mucosa, usually originating from the floor of the vagina anterior to the urethral orifice, occurs during proestrus and estrus as a result of estrogenic stimulation. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

11. Vaginitis

Inflammation of the vagina may occur in prepubertal or mature (intact or spayed) bitches. It is rare in queens. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

IV.       Reproductive Diseases of the Male

1.     Orchitis and epididymitis

Acute inflammation of the testis or epididymis may be caused by trauma, infection (fungal, bacterial, or viral), or testicular torsion. Orchitis and epididymitis are rare in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

  • ·         Chronic orchiepididymitis may develop as a sequela of the acute syndrome, or there may be no previous history of testicular inflammation.
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    2.     Banaoposthitis

    Inflammation of the penile or preputial mucosa is common in dogs. The normal preputial secretions usually do not result in overt clinical signs. Balanoposthitis is rare in cats. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    3.     Paraphimosis

    The inability to completely retract the penis into the preputial cavity usually occurs after erection. It is seen most often after semen collection or coitus. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    4.     Phimosis

    An abnormally small preputial orifice, resulting in inability to extrude the penis, may be congenital or acquired as a result of neoplasia, edema, or fibrosis following trauma, inflammation, or infection. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    V.       Brucellosis in Dogs

    B canis is a cause of abortion in kenneled dogs. Dogs are the definitive host of this organism, and natural infections in other animals are rare. Transmission of brucellosis from dogs to humans occurs but appears to be very rare. Neutering of infected dogs is sometimes an alternative to euthanasia. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    VI.       Mammary Tumors

    1.     Canine mammary tumors

    Mammary tumors in dogs are most frequent in intact bitches; they are extremely rare in male dogs. Ovariectomy before the first estrus reduces the risk of mammary neoplasia. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Feline mammary tumors

    Mammary tumors in cats are most common in older (average 11 yr) intact females. Spaying at an early age, especially before the first estrus, has a sparing effect and reduces the risk. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    VII.       Prostatic Diseases

        1.     Benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common prostatic disorder and is found in most intact male dogs >6 yr old. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    2.     Prostatitis 

    Inflammation of the prostate gland usually is suppurative and may result in abscesses. It may be associated with prostatic hyperplasia (see Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia). For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

        3.     Prostatic and Paraprostatic Cysts 

    Large cysts are occasionally found within or associated with the prostate gland. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

        4.     Neoplasms 

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the prostate. Transitional cell carcinoma arising from the bladder occasionally invades the prostate. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

        5.     Calculi

    When prostatic calculi occur (rarely), there is usually some other prostatic disease as well. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.

    VIII.       Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor

    Canine transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) are cauliflower-like, pedunculated, and nodular, papillary, or multilobulated in appearance. For more information click here or call your veterinarian.